In line with the Europe 2020 strategy, it can act as a catalyst for economic growth, including by making foreign investment and creating jobs, reducing environmental costs and providing health benefits. This can contribute to the recovery of the European economy by creating green businesses and innovative approaches, which account for around 5% of the labour market. For example, the hoge Kempen National Park (6,000 ha), located in eastern Belgium, investments to carry out improvement projects will be increased to €90 million and will generate €24.5 million per year in revenue from sustainable tourism alone. In Sweden, 10,000 m2 of green roofs were installed and an open rainwater system was built to improve the environment for humans and nature, the whole project cost about 22 million. EUR, but the benefits of this investment are already underway; For example, rainwater runoff rates are falling by half, residents` significant energy savings, biodiversity growth by half, unemployment has fallen from 30% to 6%, and rental occupancy has decreased significantly [10]. Another example is Canada, where the economic value of 13 E in Canada`s Capital Region (Ottawa-Gatineau region) averages $332 million and a total economic value of more than $5 billion, annualized over 20 years [11]. The NPQS was established in 1960 by an Act of Parliament “Agriculture (Import Control) Act No. 28 of 1959”, which instructed the department to issue quarantine regulations, infrastructure, trained personnel and scientific equipment, as well as regulations that would enable it to achieve the objective of eliminating the introduction of dangerous and destructive foreign plant pests (insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and weeds) of plants and plant products in the country and prevent the establishment and spread where, despite all preventive measures, are introduced. This mandate is in line with the text of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) of 1959, which was revised in 1979 and signed by Nigeria. There was a review of the enabling laws of the npQS and the drafting of the Nigerian Plant Protection Act, also known as the Agricultural Import and Export Control Act, 2003, to comply with international standards.

Nigeria is one of the founding members of the Inter-African Phytosanitary Commission and is represented by the Nigerian Plant Quarantine Service. The study population included health professionals such as doctors/dentists, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists and other health professionals who attended the conference, on the theme: “NHA 2014”. According to the NCDC, the rapid investment in the establishment of molecular laboratories underscores the urgent need for a well-defined hub-and-spoke model for public health laboratories in Nigeria. The goal is to ensure that each state in the country establishes a molecular laboratory that will be connected to the NCDC National Reference Laboratory. Each state`s molecular laboratory will also serve as a state-level hub to ensure that each state has a well-coordinated structure for other disease-specific laboratories such as HIV and tuberculosis. The Department of Health also rehabilitates federal medical centers in each state and builds new ones as needed. Counterfeit products are widespread and enforcement is weak. Nigeria is experiencing a decline in revenue due to lower oil prices, which is affecting the government`s ability to finance its purchases and health projects. Therefore, U.S. companies should plan to support their project proposals with funding in order to be competitive. It is also worth noting a provision establishing the funding programme for the programmes provided for in the legislation.

The Act establishes the Basic Health Care Delivery Fund (the Fund), which is largely supported by an “annual grant from the federal government of at least one per cent of its Consolidated Revenue Fund [FIU].” (National Health Act, 2014, § 11.) The FIU is a fund that “receives all income or other funds received or received by the Federation (and not any income or other funds payable. in any other public fund of the Federation created for a specific purpose).. (Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, § 80 (1), website of the International Centre for Nigerian Law.) The fund is used to fund various health programs across the country. (National Health Act, § 11.) Since independence in 1960, Nigeria has had a very limited level of legal coverage for social protection [4], apart from the fact that more than 90% of the Nigerian population is without health insurance. [5] The Nigerian health system has evolved over the years through health reforms aimed at addressing the public health challenges it faces. [6] These include: More than 1,000 health facilities will use an electronic medical record system starting June 2021 In an increasingly urbanized world, adopting sustainable practices for communities is key to improving and maintaining the health of the urban environment. This could be useful to guide urban planning to improve urban biodiversity or bioremediation as a guide for future IG management. To this end, researchers from different disciplines, both in the framework of national and international cooperation, can address many environmental issues and therefore human well-being in cities. To explore next, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary projects are needed to unravel current challenges related to biodiversity, ecosystem services and climate change in urban areas.

Another way to protect the poor and vulnerable from social and financial risks is to create and allocate resources to a legal framework for a general system. Data collected in Thailand demonstrated the impact of PHC UHC programmes on expanding access to health care for the poor and vulnerable population. [31-33] General health programs have also been shown to improve the use of health services and health status. [31] 14. Gilson L, Russells S, Buse K (1995). “The Political Economy of User Fees with Targeting: Developing an Equitable Health Financing Policy,” Journal of International Development; 7:369-401. Protection from social and financial risks to the poor and vulnerable is an important development and policy issue worldwide. There are many definitions of social protection. In the health sector, social protection is defined as programmes and measures aimed at removing financial barriers to access to health services and protecting the poor and vulnerable from the impoverished effects of medical expenditure. [2] Protection from financial risks is a key element of universal health coverage and the health system`s goal of ensuring access to quality health services without financial hardship. [3] The single agency system subordinates responsibility for food safety and the protection of public health to a single food control agency. The bodies responsible for food control along the entire value chain are based in an agency and are under the same management, so the system is coordinated and allows for faster response and efficiency.

This type of system shows that the government places a high priority on food safety and the reduction of foodborne illness. The benefits of a single agency system include: As part of its health sector response to the COVID-19 pandemic, GON, through its national oil company, the National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), has begun building 14 medical centers, as well as expanding and modernizing two intensive care units (ICUs) in the country`s six geopolitical zones. The project will cost approximately $58 million. Free health services and liberation mechanisms often appear as election promises of political actors to the electorate and are not sufficient to meet the health needs of the most vulnerable populations. According to the Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2013, more than 60% of pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 49 give birth to their baby at home without antenatal care visits. [20] In rural areas, this figure is 76.9%. [20] The situation is critical in the northeastern and northwestern regions of Nigeria, where more than 79% of pregnant women aged 15 to 49 give birth to their babies at home. [20] More than 60% of pregnant women in Bayelsa, Plateau and Niger give birth at home and not in a health facility. [20] Protection against social and financial risks can be provided through legislation-based programmes and measures. Lack of protection against social and financial risks leads to high levels of poverty, vulnerability and health inequalities. When the majority of a country`s population faces the above-mentioned problems, Governments must be responsive and design programmes anchored in legislation.